Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a chemical method of thin film deposition. The film growth is based on multiple alternation of two or more sequential surface reactions of gas phase precursors. The distinctive feature of this method is self-regulation of the film growth process: the result of each surface reaction is formation of one monolayer of new structural units bound with substrate surface by chemical bonds.

ALD process (for example Al2O3 film growth) is realized by cyclic operations in defined sequence: exposure in the first precursor (for example trimethyl aluminum vapor) – removing gaseous products of reaction – exposure in the second precursor (for example water vapor) – removing gaseous products of reaction. The result of each ALD cycle is the formation of one monolayer of substance. The film thickness is defined by the number of ALD cycles.

Matrix synthesis of grafted organic compounds - a rapidly developing area of ​​surface science. Methods for the synthesis of graft over a thousand different surface compounds. Since surface formed on the connection matrix, the method of synthesizing such compounds can be called a matrix. It includes two different synthetic approaches: a method immobilization and a method of chemical assembly.

The method immobilization is a one-step immobilization fastening surface of the matrix modifier. The advantages of this method are the ease of synthesis, the uniformity of the grafted surface groups, the high density of grafting, the possibility of gas-and liquid-phase modification.