Hardware for experimental modeling of mineral forming processes. This complex is a set of laboratory equipment for experimental simulation of processes of mineral formation and the interaction of rocks with natural water and other mineral-forming environments.

Complex experimental and computer simulation of geochemical and hydrogeological processes. Is a set of equipment for experimental research, modelling and mathematical description of processes of transformation and movement of fluids, interactions of rocks with natural water and other mineral-forming environments.

The complex includes:

1. Scanning electron microscope Hitachi S-3400N analytical device - convenient and easy to use scanning electron microscope. The device is equipped with detectors of secondary (SE) and backscattered (BSE) electrons, automated table system and automatic settings. The use of consoles EDX, WDX and EBSD gives information about the elemental composition and crystal structure (for crystalline samples).

The device is designed to study solid, non-magnetic, resistant to low pressures of samples.

Characteristics of the microscope:

Resolution up to 3 nm (30 kV accelerating voltage, SE)

Resolution up to 10 nm (3 kV accelerating voltage, SE)

Accelerating voltage from 300 V to 30 kV

The maximum size of the test specimen: 200 mm diameter and 55 mm height

Characteristics of the analytical device:

Spectrometer Oxford Instruments X-Max 20 for Energo-dispersion analysis (EDX)

The active crystal area of 20 mm2

The definition of all elements from beryllium.

Provides a stable result with count rate to 100,000 pulses per second.

Guaranteed stability of the peak position ±1 eV

Guaranteed resolution: the Mn Kα line 127 eV at the C Kα line 56 eV

The accuracy of the analysis – 1 weight percent

Spectrometer Inca Wave 500 System for the wave analysis (WDX)

Five crystals: LiF, PET, TAP, LSM80 allow to analyze elements from boron.

Microanalysis approximately ten times more sensitive than EDX

Analysis of impurity elements (< 0.1 - <0.01%)

Spectral resolution much better than EDX

The separation of closely spaced peaks, separate measurement elements, giving one signal in EDX

Accurate identification of peaks

The best sensitivity for light elements analysis

EBSD AzTek HKL Channel 5 with the Advanced with FSD detectors, AZTEC HKL and Channel 5 – a set of hardware and software for the analysis of texture and structure of materials.

The index of the phases of both high and low symmetry, the analysis of materials with pseudosymmetry.

Mapping of polycrystalline samples for the determination of orientation.

Flexible and powerful application of texture analysis using the methods of pole figures, inverse pole figures, the distribution functions of orientation/disorientation in Euler space, etc. for any crystalline materials (all 11 Laue groups).

A wide selection of databases of crystallographic information.

Mapping velocity (while indexing) to 106 points per second.

The software package AzTEC and INCA intended for processing the results of the elemental analysis and the diffraction of backscattered electrons.

Device for spraying Leica EM SCD050 with quartz detector for the deposition of conductive coatings on samples for electron microscopy.

2. Microscope Leica DM4500 P - polarization research microscope to study solid polished materials for work in reflected and transmitted light. Used in geological and material science fields.

Characteristics:

Lighting system with 100W halogen lamps by Keller with automatic configuration provides the optimum conditions of illumination with a constant color temperature depending on the lens and research method.

Revolver for 5 lenses with the independent alignment of each. Increase of installed objective lenses: 5x, 10x, 20x, 63х, 100x allow the study of sample with a magnification of 50 – 1000x. All lenses from Leica.

Polarizers for transmitted and reflected light, swivel (360 degrees) extendable. Integrated pull-out tripod lens for additional magnification factor of 1.6 x. Bertrand Lens, integrated tripod mount with a separate focusing mechanism.

Precision rotary table with automatic clamping through 45 degrees from any given position with mechanical system of moving the sample with fixation every 2mm, allowing to determine the position on the sample with an accuracy of 0.1 mm.

Digital camera Leica DFC 495 with an 8-megapixel CCD is designed for fast retrieval of high resolution images.

Advanced intuitive scanning in SXGA resolution provides up to 18 frames per second (FPS) and allows you to customize and focus the sample directly on the computer screen. The presence of Peltier cooling reduces the noise level when working with images in low-light conditions.

Software Leica Application Suite specially designed for microscopes and digital cameras from Leica is designed for obtaining the photomicrographs. The software package contains tools for camera configuration and partial configuration of a microscope color image correction, measurement of linear sizes of objects in the frame.

3. Digital microscope Leica DVM 5000

Leica DVM 5000 is modern digital high-resolution microscope for the researchs in various fields of science and technology. The design of microscope allows studying objects in the transmitted, reflected and side light.

  • Zoom up to x7000
  • Enhanced optics allows you to view even hard to reach areas of the object.
  • «Multifocus» system allows obtaining images of objects with high definition, regardless of the topography of the sample surface
  • Preparation and analysis of 3D-image in high resolution.

• Analysis of irregularities and evaluation of the profile sections.

4. Microtomography scanner SkyScan 1172

SkyScan 1172 is a desk-top high-resolution X-ray micro-CT systems. A novel architecture in which both the sample stage and the X-ray camera are moveable allows an unprecedented combination of image resolution, sample size accommodation, scan speed, and sample throughput. 

The 1172 features two X-ray camera options: the high-performance 10 Megapixel (Mp) option, and the economy 1.3 Megapixel option. The former, 10 Megapixel camera allows the maximum scanning versatility, with an image field width of 68 mm (in dual image camera shift mode) or 35 mm (in standard single camera image mode). A nominal resolution (pixel size) of lower than 1 μm is attainable. A scannable height of around 70 mm allows for either large samples or automatic batch scanning of a column of smaller samples. 

Micro-computed tomography or Micro-CT is X-ray imaging in 3D, by the same method used

in hospital CT scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. It really represents true 3D microscopy, where very fine scale internal structure of objects is imaged non-destructively. No sample preparation, embedding, coating or thin slicing are required. A single scan will image the complete internal 3D structure of your object, plus you get your sample back intact at the end! 

The best micro-CT images are obtained from objects in which microstructure coincides with contrast in X-ray absorption of the samples constituent materials. Application areas include: biomedical research, material science, pharmaceutical drug development and manufacturing, composites, dental research, electronic components, geology, zoology, botany, building materials, paper manufacture, and many more. 

SPECIFICATIONS:

  • X-ray source: 20 – 100 kV, 0 – 250 mA, 10 W,
  • <5 µm spot size
  • X-ray detector: 12-bit cooled CCD fiber-optically coupled to scintillator
  • Detail detectability 0.8 µm to 30 µm (depends on object size)
  • Maximum object size: 50 mm in diameter using offset scan (27mm in fast single scan)
  • More than 11 Megapixel (8000 x 8000 pixels) in every virtual slice through objects
  • 2D/3D image analysis, surface and volume rendering

Radiation safety: < 1 µSv/h at any point on the instrument surface

5. Nanotomography scanner SkySсan2011

 

The "SkyScan-2011" is a compact laboratory system for x-ray microscopy and tomography with resolution in the submicron range. This system performs a non-destructive three-dimensional reconstruction of the object’s inner structure from two-dimensional X-ray shadow projections.

 

Computed microtomography or micro-CT (mCT) – is a reconstruction of three-dimensional models of X-ray images. Images obtained by the same method as in medical CT, but the studied objects are smaller in size and is characterized by a high resolution for the image. The method allows for non-invasive study of the internal structure of objects. It is widely used in geology, microelectronics, oil industry, biology and medicine.

 

X-ray source:                                                    open type, 20-80 kV, La6F cathode, W target

X-ray detector:                                                 1280x1024 pixels, 12  bit with FireWire output

Positioning accuracy:                         <100nm with sample rotation, <200 nm overall stability 

Point resolution:                         < 150 nm pixel (isotropic), 400 nm (low contrast) (10% MTF)

Object dimensions:                                       0,2 – 1 mm for high resolution, 11 mm maximum

Average scan time:                                                           60-150 min (1280x1280x900 pixels)

Radiation safety:                                                                                      <1µSv /h                          

6. Spectrophotometer Evolution 201

Modern computerized spectrophotometer, allow carrying out photometric measurements of solid and liquid objects in the radiation range of 190 - 1100 nm.

User-friendly design and the software allow you to quickly and accurately perform assigned scientific tasks.

Accuracy (photometric)                                                            0.5: ±0.0004; 1: ±0.006; 2: ±0.010

Basic line parameters                                                                      ±0.0010A, 200-800 nm, 1.0 nm

Beam geometry                                                                                                               Double-beam

Data interval                                                                                            10, 5, 2, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1 nm

Measurement modes          absorption, % transmission, % reflection, Kubelka-Munk function,

                                                                                                        log (1/R), log (Abs) Abs*, intensity   

Scanning velocity                                                                                                        <1-6000 nm/min

The of the spectral line width accuracy                                                                                     1.0 nm

Radiation ranges                                                                                                                190 - 1100 nm

7. Crystal 16 Multiple-Reactor System

Crystal 16 is a multiple-reactor station that functions as a parallel crystallizer on 1 mL volume scale with online turbidity measurement. This automatic crystallisation platform can hold 16 (4 x 4) standard HPLC glass vials. A unit consists of 4 independently heated aluminum reactor blocks and is a compact bench top size. These blocks are electrically heated and cooled by a combination of Peltier elements and a cryostat. In order to prevent condensation of water on the reactor blocks and electronics during runs at temperatures below 10 °C the Crystal 16 system provides an inlet for a dry purge gas (typically nitrogen).

The platform can be used to determine meta-stable zone width and solubility for example with a wide temperature range. 

SPECIFICATIONS:

  • Temperature range: –15 to +100 oС
  • Heating/cooling Individually programmable per each reactor block
  • Temperature control accuracy 0.1 oC
  • Heating/cooling ramps: programmable between 0 and 20 oC/min
  • Stirrer speed (magnetic stirrer bars): programmable from 0-1250 rpm

8. . PICARRO L2120-i δD/δ18O Isotopic Water Analyzer

Picarro’s L2120-i provides both δ18O and δD isotope ratios with high precision in a single measurement. Researchers can use the L2120-i for either vapor or liquid data sampling and can switch between the two modes in seconds without recalibrating the analyzer or making configuration changes. The L2120-i comes in a compact single-module system, ideal for deployment in the field or in the lab.

Leveraging Picarro’s unique Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), the L2120-i is a time-based measurement system that uses a laser to quantify spectral features of gas phase molecules (specifically absorption lines unique to H2 16O, H2 18O, and HD16O) in an optical cavity. CRDS offers significant performance, ease-of-use and cost of ownership benefits compared to absorption based technologies, including ICOS. An effective path length of up to 20 kilometers provides exceptional precision and sensitivity. A patented, high-precision wavelength monitor maintains absolute spectral position, thereby ensuring accurate peak quantification. In addition, this technology guarantees that only the spectral features of interest are being monitored, greatly reducing the analyzer’s sensitivity to interfering species.

Picarro system has similar accuracy and sensitivity to expensive isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS). The device has autosampler and samples from vials are automatically injected into a vaporizing unit held at high temperature and the resulting vapor sent to the analyzer. 

Picarro’s optical cavities incorporate precise temperature and pressure control systems, ensuring accurate measurements over long periods of time, even in the harshest environments. As a result, the analyzer maintains high linearity, precision, and accuracy with minimal calibration required. For researchers, the L2120-i delivers a best-inclass combination of flexibility, speed, high-precision, and ease-of-use that sets a new standard for water isotope analyzers.

Sample volume: 2ml

Measurement errors:  δ18O: 0,1 ‰

 δD : 1 ‰

9. Tri-Carb 3180TR/SL Low Activity Liquid Scintillation Analyzer

PerkinElmer Tri-Carb 3180TR/SL is a super low level liquid scintillation analyzer. It is used in research and environmental monitoring applications for detection of little amounts of alpha, beta and gamma radioactivity. 

The computer-controlled benchtop features a proprietary (BGO) Bismuth Germanium oxide detector guard. This makes the analyzer particularly suitable for low level uses as it delivers exceptionally low backgrounds.

The Tri-Carb® liquid scintillation counter relies on the interaction between a beta-emitting radionuclide and a scintillator, a component of the scintillation cocktail. The scintillator converts ionizing radiation from the radionuclide into photons of light (scintillation). The intensity of the light produced during scintillation is proportional to the initial energy of the beta particle.

By placing a vial containing a radionuclide and scintillation cocktail into a dark detection enclosure (the instrument’s detector), the scintillation counter can measure photon intensity. A photosensitive device amplifies the light emitted from the sample vials and the amplified signal is converted to pulses of electrical energy and registered as counts. The counts accumulated during this process are sorted into separate channels, with the amplitude of the signal determining the energy channel (keV) into which the counts are sorted. The counts that are collected and sorted are used to generate the sample spectrum. Using this spectrum, the system can perform various count correction calculations and determine Counts Per Minute (CPM) for each sample. To calculate Disintegrations Per Minute (DPM), the instrument will determine the counting efficiency of each sample. Using a quench curve, the instrument compares the quench index for the samples to the quench index for the quench standards to determine sample counting efficiency and subsequently calculate DPM for the unknown samples. 

Sample volume 10 ml

10. СGamma spectrometer - radiometer MKGB-01 RADEK

Spectrometer – radiometer of gamma-radiation MKGB-01 RADEK is intended for measuring energy distribution of the gamma radiation, and activity of gamma -emitting radionuclides. 
The spectrometer is stationary measurement instrument and is designed for use in the laboratory. The spectrometer is used to measure the activity (specific activity) natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K,222Rn, and artificial radionuclides (137Cs, etc.) in the soil samples, rocks, vegetation, water, food , building materials, chemical industry materials, alloys, scrap metal and other technology products.

The detector in detection units of gamma radiation used scintillator NaI(Tl) with diameter 80 mm and a thickness 80 mm.

Features:

  • Simultaneous and selective measurement of beta, gamma and alpha radiation
  • Visualization of spectrum measuring process
  • Conducting of computations during the spectrum measuring process
  • Measurements automation  

Sample volume for measure 222Rn in water is 1l (Marinelli Beaker)

11. The particle size analyzer DynaSizer ANALYSETTE 12

The particle size analyzer ANALYSETTE 12 DynaSizer is designed based on a patented innovative technology developed by the Institute of Petroleum (France), and is a unique instrument for measuring particle size from nano - to micro-size in the liquid phase. Can be used to measure from 1 to 6000 nm in a wide concentration range: 0.0003-40 % vol. The device is based on the principle of photon correlation spectroscopy, also called dynamic light scattering. The calculation is based on the theory of dynamic light scattering. The ratio of the Stokes-Einstein for the Brownian motion of molecules, calculates the diffusion coefficients DZ by:

 

 

Original optical design eliminates the use of cuvettes, which greatly facilitates operation. DynaSizer ANALYSETTE 12 is able to measure even in dark and concentrated solutions. The analyzer measures the actual distribution of particle sizes with small sample quantities and in an extremely wide range of concentrations. In the study of minimal sample volume (less than 0.5 ml), thin-layer analysis allows to prevent local overheating of the sample and multiple scattering of light passing through it laser. The photon trap is installed in the device allows you to protect the sample from excess absorption of the transmitted light.

Specifications:

The interval of detection of the particle size (nm) – from 2 to 6000

Concentration measurement interval of sample (% vol.) – from 0.01 to 40%

The module count of photons – is

Setting the temperature of the sample is from 15 to 70 °C

Characteristics of the diode laser 658 nm / 75 mW

12. Calorimeter TAM II 

Isothermal calorimeter (TAM II TA Instruments consists of a highly stable oil thermostat, embedded computer and 4 channels with up to 24 devices simultaneously. TAM II has a maximum set of used calorimeters and currently it is the most flexible and productive device in its class, at the same time allowing to carry out measurement with high sensitivity and accuracy. The operating modes include isothermal, step-isothermal and slow scanning.

In the thermostat device used mineral oil for the fastest possible absorption of excess heat and minimize temperature gradients in the system. The effective circulation of the liquid also contributes to accurate temperature change on the program. The average temperature fluctuation in the calorimeter does not exceed the value of 10 µk in the range from 15 to 150°C. the temperature Drift is not larger than 100 µk in 24 hours. This stability provides a high detection sensitivity of the thermal effects of both fast and slow current processes, making the device convenient to study the stability of materials in storage, materials compatibility, detection of reactions and studying their kinetics.

Operating modes:

Isothermal - this is the traditional mode of use of the device TAM II. It's also a classic mode of the experiment in microcalorimetry. In this mode, the thermostat maintains the temperature of the system constant throughout the experiment, and any thermal effects associated with a chemical or physical process in the sample are continuously recorded. Isothermal measurements provide quantitative and continuous information reflecting the speed of the studied processes.

Stepwise isothermal is a mode in which the sample is sequentially isothermal stages at different temperatures. Stability and sensitivity under isothermal stages is the same as in the isothermal mode. When the temperature changes the heat flow is recorded in order to determine the effect of temperature changes on the condition of the specimen. Mode is useful to study the heat capacity and temperature dependence of chemical reactions.

The type of calorimeter: microcalorimeter, 20 ml. Designed for work with glass or steel ampoules with a volume of 20 ml. In the device TAM II can be set to 4 microcalorimeters 20 ml. noise Level <100 NW. Drift in the baseline <200нВт/24h. Microcalorimeter can be used in conjunction with devices of dissolution, titration, flow calorimetry.

13. Thermostat liquid ET 20 S

LAUDA thermostats keep the temperature at a constant level up to 5 thousandths °C, or purposefully changing it in the range from 150 to 400 °C. bath from transparent polycarbonate plastic allows you to observe the studied objects in the process of temperature control. A thermostat with a bath from polycarbonate, with a volume of 18 liters, are used in the temperature range from 20 to 100 °C. the Shaker-thermostat are equipped with a cooling coil. Clearly structured control panel, which consists of three buttons and a large led display that provides simplified navigation through menu and easy control of the thermostat. 

Specifications:

Temperature range (°C) from +25 to +85

Bath volume (liters) – 18

The stability of temperature (°C) - ±0,05

Heater capacity (kW) – 1,5

Cooling capacity at 20 °C (W) – no

Maximum pump capacity (l/min) – 15

Weight (kg) 10,5

Protection system provides the power when overheating, when a low fluid level, when you lock the pump and possible failure of the electronics and ensures maximum reliability and safety of operation even when working with flammable liquids. Temperature protection against overheating is exhibited by trimming resistor, and its value is displayed on the indicator. Thanks to the automatic self-test, a fault message appears on the display accompanied by a sound signal. Heating thermostat shaker is great for temperature control of measuring equipment such as refractometers, density meters, calorimeters, rotary capillary viscometers. The thermostat is widely used in laboratory practice in the study of isothermal solubility of different samples like synthetic origin and natural objects – rocks, natural minerals and their synthetic analogs; biological and medical research, quality control materials, calibration of the temperature sensors and in the manufacture of electronic components. The problem of temperature control, for example, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis or temperature control microbiological or chemical facilities.

14. X-ray fluorescence spectrometer SPECTROSCAN max-G

The spectrometer is designed to determine the content of elements ranging from Ca to U in the substances being in solid, powdered, dissolved, and also applied on surfaces or precipitated on the filters.

The spectrometer operation principle is based on irradiation of the sample by primary radiation x-ray tube, measuring the intensity of secondary fluorescent radiation from the sample at wavelengths corresponding to specific elements, and then calculating the mass fraction of these elements in a pre-constructed calibration characteristic representing the dependence of the content of the element from the measured intensity.

The secondary fluorescent radiation is decomposed into a spectrum using a crystal analyzer. Due to this, the spectrometer has a high capacity for separation of spectral lines, and hence the possibility of accurate analysis of complex multi-component substances.

The spectrometer is a benchtop unit with an external computer. The spectrometer consists of spectrometric unit, equipped with low-power x-ray tube cross-type, air cooled. 

The composition of hardware for experimental modeling of mineral forming processes are also part of auxiliary equipment for sample preparation for separation of the mineral fractions, grinding of samples to analytical fineness, preparation of images for electronic microscopy and microanalysis:

Jaw crusher Pulverisеtte 1

Mill planetary Pulverisеtte 7

Polishing machine Buehler AutoMeth / EcoMeth 250

15. Raman spectrometer Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRam HR800 used for registration of spectra of Raman scattering. A main aims are identification of the studied substances in solid, liquid or gaseous states, phase diagnostic of inclusions in minerals, assessment of the degree of crystallinity of the substance, studies the transformation of substances in the chemical and electrochemical reactions, studies of changes in biological tissues. A built-in microscope allows to obtain information with micrometer objects. Confocal optical scheme enables the most  detailed images and analyses to be obtaibed with speed and confidence. The spectrometer is equipped by attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared module.

Features:

Spectrograph – focal length is 800 mm;  there are 3 diffraction gratings at 600 l/mm, 1800 l/mm, 2400 l/mm

Spectral range – 4000-100 сm-1

Spectral resolution – up to 1.5сm-1

Accuracy of wavenumber – 1 сm-1

Spatial resolution – up to 1 micron

Lasers – tunable Ar+ laser with power up to 50mW and with notch filters at 488nm and 514 nm; He-Cd at 325nm and power up to 20 mW

Microscope Olympus BX41 – objectives 10Х (NA 0.25), 50X (NA 0.75), 50X (NA 0.5), 100X (NA 0.9), 40Х-nuv, ARO 15X, ATR 36X

Detector  – Peltier-cooled CCD 1024Х256 px

Linkam THMSG600  stage -  support of various temperatures from -196 to 600° C with an accuracy of 0.1° C.

16. Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer with NXR FT-Raman accessory module is intended for investigations of organic, non-organic, metal-organic substances, polymers, catalysts by methods of infrared and Raman spectroscopy.

Features:

Spectral range - 7500-50 cm-1

Resolution  – not more than 0.1 cm-1

Radiation source – double source of IR radiation (near IR/middle and far IR) with automatic sources switching

Detectors  – high-sensitive DTGS (spectral range is 12000-350 сm-1) ; DTGS with polyethylene window (spectral range is 700-50 сm-1); high-sensitive and high-speed МСТ (spectral range is 11700-600 сm-1); high-sensitive and high-speed CdTe (spectral range is 11000-1850 сm-1);

Beamsplitters – replaceable including  KBr, CaF2 and Solid Substrate

Signal/noise relation  – not less than 50000:1 for  1 minute of scanning at 4 сm-1 resolution

Accuracy of wavenumber – not more than 0.01 сm-1

Laser of Raman accessory module  – Nd:YVO4, 1064 nm, 2 W

Detector of Raman module – thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs

The spectrometer is equipped by attenuated total reflection accessory (ATR) with Ge, diamond and ZnSe crystals.

There is self-contained purge dry gas generator.